Question 34

Describe schematically the equipotential surfaces corresponding to

(a) a constant electric field in the *z*-direction,

(b) a field that uniformly increases in magnitude but remains in a constant (say, *z*) direction,

(c) a single positive charge at the origin, and

(d) a uniform grid consisting of long equally spaced parallel charged wires in a plane

Answer

**(a)** Equidistant planes parallel to the *x*-*y* plane are the equipotential surfaces.

**(b)** Planes parallel to the *x-y* plane are the equipotential surfaces with the exception that when the planes get closer, the field increases.

**(c)** Concentric spheres centered at the origin are equipotential surfaces.

**(d)** A periodically varying shape near the given grid is the equipotential surface. This shape gradually reaches the shape of planes parallel to the grid at a larger distance.

- Q:-
An infinite line charge produces a field of 9 × 10

^{4}N/C at a distance of 2 cm. Calculate the linear charge density. - Q:-
What is the force between two small charged spheres having charges of 2 x 10

^{-7}C and 3 x 10^{-7}C placed 30 cm apart in air? - Q:-
A polythene piece rubbed with wool is found to have a negative charge of 3 × 10

^{−7}C.(a) Estimate the number of electrons transferred (from which to which?)

(b) Is there a transfer of mass from wool to polythene?

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A parallel plate capacitor with air between the plates has a capacitance of 8 pF (1pF = 10

^{-12}F). What will be the capacitance if the distance between the plates is reduced by half, and the space between them is filled with a substance of dielectric constant 6? - Q:- A circular coil of wire consisting of 100 turns, each of radius 8.0 cm carries a current of 0.40 A. What is the magnitude of the magnetic field B at the centre of the coil?
- Q:-
A 600 pF capacitor is charged by a 200 V supply. It is then disconnected from the supply and is connected to another uncharged 600 pF capacitor. How much electrostatic energy is lost in the process?

- Q:-
A regular hexagon of side 10 cm has a charge 5 µC at each of its vertices. Calculate the potential at the centre of the hexagon.

- Q:-
A point charge +10 μC is a distance 5 cm directly above the centre of a square of side 10 cm, as shown in Fig. 1.34. What is the magnitude of the electric flux through the square? (Hint: Think of the square as one face of a cube with edge 10 cm.)

- Q:-
A point charge of 2.0 μC is at the centre of a cubic Gaussian surface 9.0 cm on edge. What is the net electric flux through the surface?

- Q:-
A conducting sphere of radius 10 cm has an unknown charge. If the electric field 20 cm from the centre of the sphere is 1.5 × 10

^{3}N/C and points radially inward, what is the net charge on the sphere?

- Q:-
A point charge +10 μC is a distance 5 cm directly above the centre of a square of side 10 cm, as shown in Fig. 1.34. What is the magnitude of the electric flux through the square? (Hint: Think of the square as one face of a cube with edge 10 cm.)

- Q:-
A small candle, 2.5 cm in size is placed at 27 cm in front of a concave mirror of radius of curvature 36 cm. At what distance from the mirror should a screen be placed in order to obtain a sharp image? Describe the nature and size of the image. If the candle is moved closer to the mirror, how would the screen have to be moved?

- Q:- Find the

(a) maximum frequency, and

(b) minimum wavelength of X-rays produced by 30 kV electrons. - Q:-
At room temperature (27.0 °C) the resistance of a heating element is 100 Ω. What is the temperature of the element if the resistance is found to be 117 Ω, given that the temperature coefficient of the material of the resistor is 1.70 x 10

^{-4}°C^{-1} - Q:-
A 600 pF capacitor is charged by a 200 V supply. It is then disconnected from the supply and is connected to another uncharged 600 pF capacitor. How much electrostatic energy is lost in the process?

- Q:-
**(a)**An electrostatic field line is a continuous curve. That is, a field line cannot have sudden breaks. Why not?**(b)**Explain why two field lines never cross each other at any point? - Q:-
A long straight wire carries a current of 35 A. What is the magnitude of the field B at a point 20 cm from the wire?

- Q:-
Answer the following questions:

(a) A steady current flows in a metallic conductor of non-uniform cross- section. Which of these quantities is constant along the conductor: current, current density, electric field, drift speed?

(b) Is Ohm's law universally applicable for all conducting elements? If not, give examples of elements which do not obey Ohm's law.

(c) A low voltage supply from which one needs high currents must have very low internal resistance. Why?

(d) A high tension (HT) supply of, say, 6 kV must have a very large internal resistance. Why?

- Q:-
In a Van de Graaff type generator a spherical metal shell is to be a 15 x 10

^{6}V electrode. The dielectric strength of the gas surrounding the electrode is 5 x 10^{7}Vm^{-1}. What is the minimum radius of the spherical shell required? (You will learn from this exercise why one cannot build an electrostatic generator using a very small shell which requires a small charge to acquire a high potential.) - Q:-
Two point charges q

_{A}= 3 μC and q_{B}= −3 μC are located 20 cm apart in vacuum.(a) What is the electric field at the midpoint O of the line AB joining the two charges?

(b) If a negative test charge of magnitude 1.5 × 10

^{−9}C is placed at this point, what is the force experienced by the test charge?

- NCERT Chapter

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