Difference between amorphous and crystalline solids


So we all have studied about solids in class 12th and we all know that solids are generally classified as amorphous and crystalline solids on the basis of the arrangement of consistent particle and properties.

In this article we are going to learn about these differences between amorphous and crystalline solids.

Difference between amorphous and crystalline solids:

Now depending upon the arrangement of particles and properties shown by both of them they both differ from each other. So here is the difference between amorphous and crystalline solids.

Difference between crystalline and amorphous solids
Crystalline Solids Amorphous Solids
Definite geometrical shape Irregular shape
Melts at sharp temperature Gradually soften over a range of temperature
When cut with the sharp tool newly generated surface is plain and smooth When cut with the sharp tool newly generated surface is irregular surface
They have definite and characteristic heat of fusion They don't have definite heat of fusion
Anisotropic in nature Isotropic in nature
True solid and shows all the property of solid (Rigid) Pseudo solid means it does not show all the property of true solid and it can flow at a very slow rate.
Long-range order Short-range order
Quartz is an example of crystalline solid Glass, Rubber, and plastic are examples of Amorphous solids

> Shape:- Consistent particle present in amorphous solid is in irregular shape whereas in crystalline sold its present in geometrical shape


The shape of crystalline and amorphous solids
The shape of crystalline and amorphous solids

>Melting point:- When Crystalline solid is heated after reaching the melting temperature it gets melted at the temperature, means it has a sharp melting point whereas in case of amorphous solid it gets soften and melts over a range of temperature and does not have a sharp melting point.

>Cleavage property:- When crystalline solids are cut in half the newly generated surface is plain and smooth whereas in case of amorphous solids this newly generated surface is in irregular shape

Cleavage property of amorphous and crystalline solids
Cleavage property of amorphous and crystalline solids (pic credit: curly arrow)

>Heat of fusion:- Crystalline solids have definite heat of fusion whereas amorphous solids don't have definite heat of fusion.

>Anistrophy:- Crystalline solids are anisotropic in nature means some physical properties such as electrical resistance or refractive index shows different value when measured along a different direction in same crystal whereas crystalline solids are isotropic in nature mean they show same physical value when measured along any direction.

Anisotropy in crystalline and amorphous solids
Anisotropy in crystalline and amorphous solids (pic credit: curly arrow)

>Nature: Crystalline solids are true solid meaning whereas amorphous solids are pseudo solids. Pseudo solids mean these solids can flow but they flow at such a low rate that it cannot be seen.

For example, glass is an example of amorphous solid and you will notice that glass in old buildings is thicker at the bottom because with time glass is flowing but at very slow rate and therefore with time it gets thicker at the bottom.

>Order of arrangement of consistent particles: Crystalline solids have a long-range of arrangement that means consistent particles are arranged in such a way that it follows a pattern and for long-range this pattern is followed whereas in case of amorphous solids these patterns are short-ranged and consistent particles are not arranged in a proper manner.

>Examples: Some examples of crystalline solids is quartz crystal and examples of amorphous solids are 1. Glass 2. Rubber 3. Plastic

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